## Properties Of Multiplication

Students always find it hard to understand the purpose of studying the properties of different operations. The purpose of properties is to help us calculate the result quickly. Basically, properties act like shortcuts to perform the operations.

There are 4 properties of multiplication:

1. Zero property of multiplication
2. Identity property of multiplication
3. Commutative property of multiplication
4. Associative property of multiplication
5. Distributive property of multiplication

Zero Property of multiplication:

When any number is multiplied by zero, the result is always zero.

Eg: 5 x 0 = 0

Identity property of multiplication:

When a number is multiplied by 1, the result is always the same number.

Eg: 5 x 1 = 5

Commutative property of multiplication:

When we multiply two or more numbers, the order does not matter. Order property or commutative property of multiplication states that the answer remains the same when multiplying numbers, even if the order of numbers is changed.

Eg: 2 x 3 = 6 or 3 x 2 = 6

Associative Property of multiplication:

The associative property of multiplication states that the product of three or more numbers remains the same regardless of how the numbers are grouped.

The associative property acts as a shortcut to multiplying numbers faster.

The associative property is applicable to addition and multiplication only not subtraction and division.

Eg: (3 x 2) x 4 = 24

3 x ( 2 x 4) = 24

Distributive property of multiplication over addition:

• To distribute means to divide something.
• The distributive property of multiplication states that when a number is multiplied by the sum of two numbers, the first number can be distributed to both of those numbers and multiplied by each of them separately, then adding the two products together for the same result as multiplying the first number by the sum.

Eg: 6 x 8 = 6 x (4+4) = 6 x 4 + 6 x 4 = 24 + 24 = 48

Distributive property of multiplication over subtraction:

• The distributive property of multiplication states that when a number is multiplied by the difference between two numbers, the first number can be distributed to both of those numbers and multiplied by each of them separately, then subtracting the two products together for the same result as multiplying the first number by the difference.

Eg: 6 x 8 = 6 x (10 – 2) = 6 x 10 – 6 x 2 = 60 – 12 = 48

Different ways to teach multiplication properties:

Teaching through stories: