Introduction To Multiplication

Multiplication is a fundamental operation in mathematics that involves combining groups of equal values. It is essential for building a strong foundation in arithmetic and laying the groundwork for more advanced mathematical concepts.

This teaching guide aims to provide an effective framework for introducing multiplication to kids.

Multiplication can be simply referred to as repeated addition. Multiplication is denoted by the cross (x) or asterisk symbol. Numbers to be multiplied are called factors. The first number (factor) to be multiplied is called the multiplicand, and the second number (factor) is called the multiplier. The result of the multiplication is called the product.

Multiplication is used to easily and quickly perform repeated additions.  Multiplication forms the basic foundation for more advanced calculations in math such as algebra, calculus, etc.

## Equal Groups of Objects

• Equal groups of objects mean groups with the same number of objects. Visual aids, such as objects or drawings, can be used to demonstrate the concept of equal groups.
• For example, if there are 2 plates with 3 apples each, then it can be said that there are 2 equal groups of 3 apples each. The multiplication equation for the same can be written as 2 x 3 = 6

Multiplication is a quicker way of adding equal groups or sets. Multiplication can be seen as a shortcut for repeated addition.

Example : 2 x 3 = 2 + 2 + 2 = 6.

## Multiplication facts and tables

Multiplication facts, such as the multiplication tables, are introduced to kids to reinforce the skill of multiplication. Tables for 2, 5, and 10 are relatively easier to learn, so kids are taught these tables first, then the other numbers.

Interactive methods, such as songs, chants, or games, can be used to make memorization engaging.

## Table of 2

There are 2 methods of finding multiples of 2:

Multiplying 2 with other numbers like 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., or by adding 2 repeatedly to itself.

For example : 2 x 5 = 10. Similarly, when we add 2 five times, we get 10.

## Single-digit multiplication

• Multiplication tables are used for the multiplication of single-digit numbers.
• When any 2  single digits are multiplied, the product (result) is obtained by simply reading the table of the concerned number.
• For example, 2 x 7
• Here the multiplication table of 2 is read 2 by 7 times, which gives the answer as 14.
• Here, 14 is the product obtained by multiplying 2 by 7.
• 2 and 7 are also said to be factors of 14.

## Multiplication by Column Method

Multiplication can be performed with ease by using the column method.

The column method of multiplication is useful for multiplying factors of ‘n’ numbers of digits.

For example : The multiplication of a 2-digit number by a 1-digit number can be done by following steps:

1. Arrange the given numbers in the column according to their place value.
2. Always write a bigger 2-digit number on the top.
3. Write the given 1-digit number at the bottom.
4. Now, multiply the 1-digit number at the bottom with each digit on the top.
5. Always begin multiplying from the extreme right (ones).

For example : 34 x 2

• Multiplication of 2-digit numbers by 1-digit numbers also requires regrouping sometimes.

For example : 25 x 3

Introducing multiplication to students involves developing a conceptual understanding of the operation and providing ample opportunities for practise and application. This teaching guide provides a structured framework to help students grasp the fundamentals of multiplication. The complexity of questions can be set according to the specific needs and abilities of kids.

Posters

Teaching multiplication with kid-friendly, clear, and easy-to-understand posters from Uncle Math School by Fun2Do Labs :

Story

Ignite kids’ curiosity with engaging stories for role play and skits, making the learning of this concept an exciting and effective experience. Teaching multiplication through stories from Uncle Math School by Fun2do Labs :

Text of Stories

Activities

Teaching multiplication through activities : Learning multiplication can be made enjoyable by incorporating interactive games and activities.

### Flip cupcake cases :

This is an interesting activity for kids to practise multiplication by the play way method.

1. Different cupcake cases are taken, and the multiplication sentences are written on the bottom of the cupcake case, and the product of the same is written inside the case.
2. All cupcake cases are placed bottom side up to show the multiplication questions.
3. Kids can be called on to choose a cupcake case and answer the question loudly, then check their answer by flipping it.
4. The correct answer is rewarded with a cupcake case. The winner is the one with the maximum number of cases.

Worksheets

Help your kids practise multiplication with interesting and engaging fun worksheets and solutions from Uncle Math by Fun2do Labs.

Solution 532 : Multiply By 4
Worksheet 533 : Multiply By 7